Objects / Borders / Things

April 3ed – Semiotic Text summary

Semiotic Approches to Materai Culture

Symbols are a way of communicating, It it like a sort of language. It reminds me of Egyptian art where they had used symbols and drawings to create a narrative.I find it interesting how they describe that if you get an object, every characteristics about that object over all told you what the object was and its purpose. But if you were to get the same object with the same characteristics but put it in a different environment, you would then have to take note of everything surround this object and now it holds a different purpose, without even having to change any aspect of it. This is like if I were to take my bag that I wear everyday. If i were to bring it to school it would allude to my school bag but put it in a different environment like the beach, it would turn into a beach bag. It is the same bag, same purpose but we see if differently in different environments. Something else that stood out to me was the concept of “sound-image” which was an object or a signifier. It gave a good example when they mentioned a person in a photograph may contain different things like hat, eyeglasses etc etc but to fully be able to understand that image we have to take in consideration the photographers use in size, shape colour etc. This ultimately changing the photograph completely and how we might read it now verses first glance.

April 1st – writing responses

The Porn Myth: exposing the Reality and Fantasy of Pornography.’ (summery)

Author : Matt Fradd

Chapter 4 : There is no difference between Porn and Naked Art



In this chapter Matt Fradd explains the border between what is porn and what is nude art, which I personal thing, even myself, I could get confused by.

Pornographers often speak of their work as a cultural continuum of erotic art. There is not doubt that porn has be around since the beginning of time, we see from historical paintings/sculptures like in the ‘Dirty Dishes in Greece’ where intercourse was formed into art. The word porn firstly comes from the derived Greek root of ‘porne’ which means ‘prostitute’. but like all artist we have a desired end : true art is not produced for this purpose, true artists aim to capture their vision of beauty in order that the beauty may be appreciated. The difference between pornography and naked art is the intention of the make and reader. In short terms, porn is a ‘physiological state that is prelude and prerequisite to release’. And Art is something that is open to the viewers imagination. Like border between porn and naked art is blurry, some might say that porn is in the eye of the beholder but at the end of the day “Porn is not created for the sake of beauty, and true art is not created for the sake of masturbation”

Porn.: Fantasy vs Reality ft Calum McSwiggan . Voice box’ (response)

Channel : Childline September 2017


Description: Lots of young people watch porn or are curious about it. But there are a few things that are good to know about porn. Calum joins us to bust some myths.

Within this video they do a Question and Answer about the frequently asked questions about the life of porn verses the real life sex. I think that this video gives a very basic and easy to understand way of explain the difference in Porn and reality, it is definitely something that is more aimed for the younger audience. One question stood out to me was “people like being forced into sexual acts”. He explains that porn of course is an over exaggerated thing but it doe snot mean that everyone likes to be treated like that – it is probably that the majority of the people do not like that. Which made me think about the border between what is real that we can apply in our own sex life and what should just stay in porn. This made me think of a very popular topic in todays society which is Consent and how for some reason we tend to struggle with this border of communication that two might come by when asking for consent, it is the most important part of a sexual act yet we still face difficulties with communicating with each other. This ultimately creates a false fantasy of a sex life as people think they are able to do what they see in pornography to others because they do not see the content given in these adult films.

‘Is Porn Bad for you? Santorum brings up tricky questions’ (summary)

By: Stephanie Pappas March 2012


In this article they debate the question ‘is porn bad for you’ and of course there is, like always, a very blurry line between the negatives and the benefits. Studies on the effects of pornography have focused on college students, the results were mixed. Some results did find that pornography did play a part in the attitudes and willingness to inflict pain on woman during intercourse. From Meta-analyse Paul right said the studies were clear…

but at the same time research shows there could be the exact onsite result to porn. They state that usually after an orgasm he/she is not as interested in sex as they were 10 minutes ago. though there is not proof of catharsis having any links in violence to pornography at all, given there are still a large number of factors that could place a role. Malamuth explains that “it can add fuel to the fire” he then adds “it can make a person who perhaps has a certain proclivity, a certain inclination, a certain risk profile even more likely to act our in a sexually aggressive way”

‘Reclaiming Female Sexual Desire , Pam Costa’ (response)

Channel : Tedx Talks June 2018



After a decade-and-a-half at Apple and Facebook, Pam left her career in high tech to found Down To There to share her real-life stories of challenges and successes around sexuality in her marriage.

Through her writing, speaking and coaching, she hopes to inspire individuals and couples to find ways to renew and deepen desire and intimacy in their own relationships.

Pam is also passionate about raising awareness within the medical and mental health communities about the positive impact of peer support on female sexual health, recently presenting her research on this topic at the 2018 International Society for the Study of Women’s Sexual Health conference.


This was a Tedx Talk that I was able to personally relate to regarding growing up and what I was taught about sex verses what sex really is. She goes to explain how at a young age she was taught in school that sex was bad until marriage, that if it were to happen it would lead to fertility or disease. And I too remember being tough that at school, to the extent where we were made to watch this video of a woman named Pam Stenzel and I remember being so effected by it that all of my classmates came out of the class saying that we were never going to have sex ever again. This too like Pam Costa (in ted talk) had engraved in my head that Sex was a bad thing. She goes on to explain how She lost her sexual desire and thought it was because something was wrong with her. This made me think about education system when it comes to sex and the border between what we are being tough to keep us safe and what we need to be taught. Being raised in an all only Catholic education systems it was no surprise that sex was a very taboo subject, it was hardly talked about and if it was to come up, we were told everything that was wrong with sex but never anything right about it… oh unless it was after marriage. I personally was not effected by the teachings that sex was ‘bad’ as a child but I know some people that do which makes me realise the importance of education, especially about sex, to the younger generation because it will be a big aspect to their whole life.

‘Sex Has A Price Tag , Pam Stenzel’ (response)

Channel : Pam Stenzel May 2012


I remember being shown this video when I was about 12/13 years old. Now thinking of it today there is one particular part during this talk that sparked my interest, and this was the border between what is sex and what is not sex. She goes to explain that sometimes, especially students, have approached her in the clinic and come out with positive STD but wonder how she got it because they claim still be a virgin. But many of us, like myself, forget that sex is not just penetration of the penis to the vagina but it can be any skin contact within the genial area such as ‘hand to genital, mouth to genital, hence the name… oral sex’. It interests me because in our society we strictly put this boarder that if it is not the penis is not in the vagina then it is not sex. But the matter of the fact is that sexual contact with the genital does come under the umbrella of sex and there are just subcategories under it.

March 31th – writing responses

The Porn Myth: exposing the Reality and Fantasy of Pornography.’ (summery)

Author : Matt Fradd

Chapter 3 : Porn Empowers Woman

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In this chapter we explore the boundaries in porn involving woman empowerment and tests the gender norms in our society today when it comes to gender norms. It states that woman joyfully participate in porn give woman the priestesses of female liberation. Having woman in porn doing what they want to do takes away the gender norms that woman have to be more conservative than males. Though this is not speaking for all woman, Feminism is something individual to each feminist. They then interview Miriam Weeks or ‘Belle Knox’ and she explains how she loves the work that she does. This platform has enabled her to make her own brand and a name for herself, it also has helped it financially. But of course it is not all fun and games, Miriam still risks of things like painful sex, sex with repulsive men and risking loosing herself to her alter ego, Belle Knox. At the end of the day what empowers me maybe different from what empowers someone else “Feminist pornography is an oxymoron’ working in the industry that using your body to make a buck can only feed a system of oppression. All the talk about female empowerment is just a new face of Porn PR.”

Podcast : interview with a young Christian Ex-porn Addict.’ (response)

Channel : Mindful habit life coaching for Sex Addiction and Porn Addiction”

Description : In this powerful podcast, Craig interviews Joseph, a young Christian porn addict who shares his journey from an addicted teen to healthy sexuality and what he did to finally break free. He talks about slips, shame, and most importantly the Christian principle of forgiveness.

Something that really stood out to me in this interview was the early effects that porn had on the young christian boy, Joseph. He explained that the issues started with his mother and he started loosing respect and treating her poorly after watching the fantasy of porn. This interested me and made me question the boundaries between the sex world and reality. It is not surprise that woman in porn are mostly portrayed as something that is there to pleasure men. This plays a big role in our thinking, especially if we don’t know any better. Porn and reality is often mixed up to be the same thing, this being the same with love movies and reality. We grow expectations that we try to make a reality and sadly one of them is dominating woman, as we might see when watching more intense hardcore porn. It makes me question why in the porn world it is easier to find a porn where a woman is being dominated over a passionate love making porn. Is it because we wish our reality was like what we see in the films or is it because we just don’t know any better.

The Porn Myth: exposing the Reality and Fantasy of Pornography.’ (response)

Author : Matt Fradd

Chapter 2: to be anti-porn is to be anti-sex

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in this chapter Matt Fradd explains to us the border between porn and sex and explores the myth that if you are anti-porn toy must also be anti-sex. This statement interests me, because there is. A huge difference in porn and sex but over all they are under the same umbrella. In the late 1980s there was a group formed called the “sex – positive feminist” , their idea was that porn was a concept where men had sex and the woman were there to endure. Which made me question, what kind of porn are they watching, following this a adult actor came out to say… 

Which made me feel like porn was more of an empowering thing. Where woman are able to experience freely their fetishes and kinks and show it to the world with no shames and celebrate themselves. But he raises a good question as too, are we bad to call pornography degrading and not be anti-sex? It is a lot more of a person answer. What I think of pornography may be different to how the next person views pornography. Some might like the concept of it being degrading to woman, maybe that is their kink, therefore it does not make them anti-sex. It is an interest question that I myself don’t even have an answer to because I believe Porn is not degrading at all, as long a it consensual and fun for both parties which most right porn companies make sure it is.

March 29th – decided to start new topic.

‘The Porn Myth : uncovering the truth about sex stars’ (summery)

By Sophie Pappas, Live Science Contributor February 25th 2013


Start: Porn stars aren’t particularly keen on being studied. But they are the focus of great public interest and moral debate, which may explain why one man’s in-depth analysis of adult film performers went viral last week….

End: …. More work is also needed on rates of sexually transmitted infections in the industry and the effect on a performer of contracting one, he said. In 2012, a measure requiring porn stars to wear condoms passed in Los Angeles. In January, Vivid Entertainment and performers Kross and Logan Pierce filed a lawsuit to challenge the law on freedom of speech and anti-censorship grounds.
Mental health is important, Griffith said, but “I think the more important question has to do with physical health.”


In September 2012, James Griffith, a psychologist at the Shippensburg University in Pennsylvania, along with his colleagues reported findings in the international Journal of Sexual Health. He gathered his research by asking adult performers their reasoning of entering the industry. He ultimately found out that money was the primary drive, this shortly followed by name. Within the porn industry their are a lot of stenotypes which made me question the border between fantasy and reality. Within the research it shows that most adult actresses are expected to have enormous breasts, blond hair and blue eyes in order for them to succeed. But infect that is not the case as most adult actors now average in a 34B which is a size smaller than the average size of 36C. Though the stereotype that the actor has to be slim is true as the average adult actor weighs about 53kg, which is 22kg significantly less than the average woman. In the Male industry they too have stereotype that still follows them especially with weight. They average in at about 76kg which again is lighter by 12kg of the average male. Kross (former adult actress), however was not surprised by the results, “There have been more brunette starts than blonde stars, its just that those stars have never been as big as the blonde stars” she said.

Porn is not a bad thing, But letting fantasy impact reality is.’ (summery)

By Emma Wall 14 March 2013


Start: There is a woman in America who has set up a website encouraging couples to upload videos of themselves having nice, normal sex.

The website, called MakeLoveNotPorn.com aims to neutralise the millions of hardcore images available to anyone with access to the internet and remind us what nice, normal sex looks like…

End: For most people, porn is a bit of mindless escapism. A male friend argued that to say that watching porn is changing a generation’s view on intimacy and ‘normal’ relationships is akin to suggesting that reading Country Life means you’re unable to live in a flat, or watching Harry Potter and Twilight means you will be checking the shadows for wizards and werewolves.


In this arctic they explore the risks of the border between reality sex verses fantasy sex (those you might see on adult films), They explain that “Sex is the area of human experience that embraces the widest possible range of tastes. Everyone should be free to make up what their own minds about what they like and don’t like”. But it goes both ways, Porn has both a negative impact and a positive impact on society. In todays society with a great percentage of our population watching porn it is now hard to split this scripted fantasy of porn to your real life personal sex like. Masturbation to porn for woman sometimes leaves woman who rarely orgasm from sex ensue of how it is to orgasm during actual intercourse, they end up using porn as an example of their sex life  with their partners with by themselves and then are surprised when they fail to enjoy it. This goes the same for men. They imagine that what they see in porn is what woman want int heir sex life. so they end up ‘pounding a woman like a porn star in the way to pleasure them’ and again fail to enjoy it. But not adult films aren’t necessarily ‘evil’. it explains that ‘it is more what is lacking in porn is increasingly lacking in real life, and thats the bad news.’ but at the end the testimonial stands… Porn is not a bad thing, but letting fantasy impact reality is.

March 25th – write responses.

How Maui slowed the Sun – response (written response)

Author / Illustrator – Peter Gossage

First few half – One evening, Māui and his brothers were making a hāngi for their evening meal. They had just finished heating the stones when the sun went down and it quickly became too dark to see. Māui was annoyed with having to eat his food in the dark. He stood in the light of the fire and addressed his people.
“Every day we have to rush to do our chores and gather our food before the sun sets. Why should we be slaves to the sun? I will catch the sun before it rises, and teach it to travel slowly across the sky!” But one of the brothers was quick to criticise, not believing Māui could possibly do such a thing. “It would be impossible to catch the sun, he’s much bigger than any bird you’ve ever caught!”

“The heat and flames would surely burn you to death,” said another.


Last few pages – Māui instructed his brothers to let go of their ropes. Tamanuiterā travelled slowly up into the sky, tired and beaten.The days became longer for Māui and his people, giving them plenty of time to fish, gather food and do their chores. Māui’s power and ability could never be questioned again, he had succeeded in taming the sun. From that day until this, Tamanuiterā has always travelled slowly across the sky.

And this is the story of how Māui slowed the sun.

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I remember bring a little girl and this story, and the Maui stories in general, being read to us constantly. One of my favourites was about Maui and the Sun. Now being older and reading the story I see a much deeper and more importance in these children books. All these Maui stories were all just ancient myths to help explain the unexplainable. I find the topic of myths being very interesting and a creative process. With todays science we almost wonder how on earth someone could think that way but at the same time you remember that people were curious and would have known nothing else. And I myself do admit that at one time I did believe that the Maui stories were series explanations on why the world us like this and it made my childhood feel like a fairy tale.In the story I started to understand how much the sun and sun light meant to the Maori culture, it was tapu to them, along with everything else in nature. It made mer realise how much the sun meant to me and how with-it it i probably would not be able to do a lot of my tasks throughout the day. We can tell that in the maori culture the sun is tape to them because maui and his brother went our of their way and risked there lives to help the village gain more sunlight throughout the day.


March 24th – starting to write responses.

The Hour Glass – response (art response)

Temperance bearing an hourglass; detail Lorenzetti’s Allegory of Good Government, 1338

Ambrogio Lorenzetti’s fresco painted between 1337 and 1339 entitled ‘The Allegory of the Good and Bad Government’ features the first known depicted of an hourglass in either art or letters. Image courtesy of Wikimedia Commons

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The hour glass has always interested me. I remember being a little kid and seeing hour glasses on  sitting on a table and I could be entertained for hours. In this art above it shows what could be considered as one of our virtues – Tenperantia or Temperance. I see the woman representing the temperance as she looks at the hour glass that represents time. I find that relationship between temperance and time interesting, as temperance is dependant on time. Without time you can now show practice the virtue of temperance. You can see in the woman face that she looks impatient and upset, like time if stoping her form doing what she wants to do. This relates to having temperance as you are restraint from retaliation in forms like non-violence, forgiveness, humility, modesty and from excessive anger or craving from something in the form of calmness and self-control. It made me think about how much time actually controls us and our value and it effects us in a personal level rather than just using time to complete tasks within out day. I now find myself subconsciously watch time go past as more personal practice to improve myself and how I treat people around me.

The Sun Stone – The Calendar Stone – summary (sculpture response)


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Museo National De Antropologia, Mexico city

This piece of work is sometimes called the calendar stone but mostly known to be the Sun Stone. Thought the years it has become a modern emblem of Mexican culture. it was a piece that was. discovered in 1790 at the southeastern edge of the Plaza Mayor (zocalo) in Mexican city. It was unfinished, mostly likely painted and originally intended on the ground. What this sculpture records the origin of the Aztec Cosmo. It records the different eras and different suns in which we have lived in generations. The current area the 5th era – four movement – this telling us that in this era it is ‘death by earthquakes’. in this capital that the stone was found it was surround by volcanos and fault lines and there too has been devastating earthquake that have happened here such as the 1985 Mexican earthquake that had killed more than 10,000 people – so this is suppose to prophesies how our current world is going to end. In the era there is the idea that we were formed by two Gods agreeing to sacrifice themselves, that the sun was brought to us by the two Gods sacrifice. At this stage though sun was at a stand still so another God had to sacrifice themselves to create motion in the sun. And because of these sacrifices, we as humans have to give back and these could be in forms of animal sacrifice, piercing of our bodies to give blood or human sacrifice.

Earth Rise – response (image response)

link to image – http://time.com/5479821/earthrise-picture-history-apollo-8/

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Blue Marble : The home planet as seen as from lunar orbit, Christmas Eve, 1968. William Anders / NASA

This image captures in Apollo 11 where they had landed on the moon for the first time and was able to step foot and explore around. It is crazy for me to look at this image of the earth from such a pure and raw angle, look how venerable in this big space of ‘nothingness’. I feel so small and so do my problem when looking at this image as we are just a form of atoms living on that small dot that orbits our sun. It raises concerns to me also about our environmental practices. We today suffer from climate change, pollution and other man made issues, why are we doing this to the only place we as humans can survive? we are just a small spect in a big universe and it makes me question if we are become to cocky for our own good with the technology and products we have today that it is actually destroying our world and how we are intended to live. it is a little tiny place that we inhabit in the middle of space and we continue to destroy day to day for our own beneficial needs that will probably only benefit some of us here on earth.


March 22th – starting to write responses.

If The Sun Goes Out For 24 Hours – response (video response)


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In this short video that was uploaded on the channel ‘Ridddle’ on youtube he explains to us what they think the earth will turn into when the sun is gone for 24 hours, he later explains in the video what will happen as far as 5 billion years from today when the sun is expected to explode. Although we will never be certain about what would happen if the sun were to disappear, I still find it interesting, the huge impact and part that the sun has on our earth. I often don’t think about how the sun provided for us to make sure that we are kept on cycle to be able to live. I wouldn’t say we take the sun for granted as we use every day and ever piece of its light to complete our tasks that we are suppose to do throughout our day but we forget to realise how much the sun actual does to our earth to keep us alive – simple things like photosynthesis to keep the oxygen moving through our air for us animals to stay alive and keeping us in orbit. It makes it wonder, can we survive without the sun if we were to loose it in 100 million years time with the technology that we might have invested by then, but then again… would it be worth living if we didn’t have the sun?


The Sundial – response

link to image – https://jitp.commons.gc.cuny.edu/4836-2/

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First invented by the Ancient Greeks the sundial was use to tell the ‘time’ of day. The sundial uses the sun and the shadow it crates on the dial to indicate what hours of day it is. I myself along with most of us are dependant on time whether it be minutes/hours/weeks/months/years that we place our own lives and the whole of history in a ‘timeline’ that is measured by how many times our world circulates around the sun. I find it interesting that even back then they were so dependent on time but mostly for the reason that they wanted to know when the sun would rise and when it would set so that they were able to do their tasks for the day. But I question why do we need to do things at a certain time? why do we only do certain things at night and only certain things during the day, the only difference is that one period provides less light than the other. Would it make a difference if we grew up knowing that day was dark and night was light? Is the thought of night being dark and sun being light just a construct that was put in our head at a young age.

March 16th – Mana Taonga Readings (summary)

Animism in Art and Performance – Indigenous Animacies (summary)

  • Taonga could be considered animate and alive because they instantiate ancestral Hau, Mauri and mana.
  • The word Taonga is applied to taonga tuku iho ; such as carvings or waving, weapons and adornments. Also to triple resources and territories including customary food gate area, fisheries, flora and funa – more abstract cultural entities.
  • Taonga function beyond the bounded horizon of pre-colonial maori life and beneath the surface of others more visible or dominate.
  • Like the tuna, taonga can survive as taonga at a great distance from their whanau, viewers or thinkers. It is an important part of hau, that needs to be seen,
  • It is argued that kaupapa Maori art should not be compared to contemporary art. some believe that the two should not be compared but do coexist next to each other.
  • When bringing a Taonga object and a contempt object, they bring two different worlds of meaning, creating potential for new questions and understanding.
  • They both can bring out a interconnectedness of all things.
  • Taonga Maori land us in a place where animism has profound efficacies, yet does not exists as a critique-able term or concept.
  • During operation 8 the people that are targeted were overwhelmingly Maori.
  • To be able to see the work climb up onto the van and watch the projector from there.
  • in 1853 two taonga were gifted to Sir George Grey by the Maori Chiefs Te Rangihaeata of negate toa and taratoa own my own iwi ngati raukawa.
  • Kaitangata was implicitly also an ancestor; Hence grey could report that ;the old chief then proceeded after the ancient Maori custom of Hongi to press the green nose to his nose and pass it over his face in token of farewell.
  • Hongi is a practice of greeting each other thus sharing hau.
  • Taonga are handed ove as loved ancestors, thus binding recipients into a duty of care and creating a delicate state.
  • The Ancestors Hau, Mauri, mana and tapu meets that of all new holders of the taonga, joining them together.
  • It represents ‘representing’, ‘signifying’ or ‘embodying’.
  • Taonga is Hua.
  • Taonga, like people are a living presence of ancestral lines of descent and relation.
  • The ancestor hood  or personhood that genre highlights via a focus on hau is key to the relational function of range in Maori Social life.
  • It is by dint of their objectiveness that Tonga have the capacity to produce and reproduce relations: ‘ the very partibility and motility of taonga… Their ‘thinginess’
  • There is no ontological apartheid between person and things.
  • For Maori, the thing in its most basic sense is like the self: it is immediately connected to everything else.
  • Their impenetrable aliveness their self disclosure of wairua, mauri and mama that call me to feel and think of them.
  • Whatever we perceive as Maori… is comprised of what is not immediately there.
  • as subjectless objects that call for conscious engagement, taonga both perform and are performed. – this performance includes the handing, hongi-ing, sometimes crying over, but pivots on the telling of korero.
  • Without Korero, the item ceases to communicate, loses context and fails to link a kin groups identity to specific ancestral landscape.
  • Taona not dwelling with their familiars or otherwise held in known hands are wahi ngaro.
  • Almost anything can become Taonga.
  • As signing the Treaty with their moko marks, the chiefs extended their own mana to the document rendering it an instantiation of their personhood as the ‘living face’ on the line.
  • Henare suggests that taonga as a cultural concept has suffered a tragic through inevitable decline into inauthenticity.
  • Paua features in whalatauki, Pirakau and contemporary literature. In a legend , Kar places paua shells on his eyes when going to sleep so he can trick his visitors into believe he is awake.
  • Paua like eels have whakapapa leading back to Tangaroa (rangi and papa)
  • as scared instantiations of tangaroa, own hau and mana, they hold the potential to reawaken us to our entire complicit relationship with the sea if we engaged appropriately with them.
  • Te Tau had created a visible hau of the people and places of Te Papaioea, in the form of shimmery haloes and auras.
  • also created a semblance of a tipuna Gaza for the whole view is distinct paua coloured.
  • This is not arrival in individuation and the tupuna are not accessed as subjectivities – no more than the passers-by are.
  • The thinker is therefore not outside matter; he or she is instead within it.
  • The experience it offers could be just a semblance of a taonga experience until we turn to ways in which the tau taonga are performed here.
  • The Paua holds, restores and guards genealogical information belonging to Te Taus people.
  • Hapuakorari is a taonga of Te Tau Rangitane iwi.
  • For the real Hapuakorari is ‘full of mystery’ and ‘shrouded in mysticism.
  • Such ‘Withinness’ is surely all the stronger and more embodied for those who first heard their whakapapa chanted to them as babies, by tohunga.
  • This connected immersed perspective approaching an object oriented ‘asoective’, is there also is tap sell when he describes the taonga assertion of a whakapapa landscape overriding any individual human experience.
  • If the artist practise their tikanga with care they are equally steadfast in their refusal of visual ropes that might reap them in a Maori Essentialism.
  • Tirohanga a reweti exhibition of site-specific camera obsecura photophraphs and video exploring both Colonial and Maori views on Aotearoa landscapes.
  • it is not cynical to do so, it is just the maori reality.
  • Hau cant be shaken off.
  • Te Tau activation of Hau weave people together  in ways that have no concern for the boundaries of the art object as it is constituted by the gallery nor for the art knowledge of art viewing subjects on that paradigm.
  • The Magic of the Hau is that it bridges differences, joins what was separated.
  • Resist the Temptation of slipping into a new kind if distracted exoticism, one that would permit viewers gently guided tours through signs of the other rather then obliging them to undergo genuine encounters with its intractable differences.
  • it comes from outside/
  • We might need to venture in dark waters to regenerate ourselves.
  • “and here we really are, still taonga people, donning paua-shell eyes, working hard to shift the timbre of our watch from fear of aroha.

March 12 – Mana Tonga Reading (summary)

Taonga Maori –encompassing rights and property in New Zealand. (summary)

  • Marcel mass first bought the concept of range to international astounds in his seminal ‘Essai Sur Le Don’.
  • Mauss argued that when tang is treasured possession is exchanged, it carries with hau ‘the spirit of the gift’
  • Ranapiri explains that one tango change for another does not simply carry hau of the gift but it is the Hau.
  • in the virtual essence of life principle there is a precise identity in our other worlds between things and Spirits.
  • Maori rights in the taonga are specifically protected in the arms of the Treaty of Waitangi.
  • The Treaty of Waitangi was an exchange of promises between the Maori and the British.
  • They agreed that Queen Victoria could establish a governor in NZ. (article 1)
  • The Queen representative promised that she would uphold the Tino rangati-ratanga or absolute authority of the chiefs over their lands, living space.
  • All their valuables – a phase often translated.
  • They also agreed to gift the rights of the land to the Queen.
  • the queen promised to protect the Maori and give the same rights.
  • During this change the Taonga and resources lost in the colonial process.
  • 1975 – Waitangi Tribunal
  • This Latter category includes the Maori Language, knowledge in vernal and the knowledge skilled practice tand artefacts of processes including carving and weaving.
  • These are woven together into kaupapa the statement clames, in which diverse conception are laid alongside one another and held with tension.
  • Intellectual property and property rights amount the indigenous cultural and customary heritage rights.
  • The Fisheries Claim people seem to prepared to accept that maori value rights in the resources defined by authorise as traditional.
  • Maori participate in clear participate in more than one registered value – which produces commodity as well as that which is people by taonga.
  • The who inherently oppose – the more one values commodities the less Maori becomes, as to claim an attachment to the artefacts of capitalism upon commitment to the world of Taonga.
  • The Maori regards the treaty as taonga, as a token of covenant.
  • The Waitangi Tribunal has arisen debates and arguments about the Treaty around who had signed it.
  • Treaty guarantees to Maori Te Tino Rangatiranta over the Taonga.
  • Maori assert that the Treaty upholds their authority over their taonga.
  • The treaty protects the salience and ongoing development of Maori principles and values in perpetuity.
  • Treaty is described as Taonga, itself.
  • “ The Treaty of Waitangi is a sacred Taonga, incised with tattoos from the skin of our ancestors. It is their Tapu, the Tapu of their knowledge of their priest and high chiefs. “
  • They used designs form their moko and facial tattoos as a way of personally signing the Treaty.
  • The Chiefs extended their own mana to the document rendering It an instantiation of their personhood as the ‘living face’
  • Maoris were forced to read and white in english and start religious practices.
  • Writing in English possessed power with which they are familiar, as well as those with which they were not.
  • When the treaty was signed the documents were inconsistent.
  • Mckenzie warns, that fact that chiefs ‘signed’ the document in its various guises should not necessarily be taken as an indication of agreement.
  • Only a few Maoris could speak english this then restricted their access to morally dangerous non-spiritual material.
  • ‘presumed wide spread, high-level literacy of the Maori in the 1830 is a chimera’
  • This to prove that since only 79 wrote their name and the rest did not, shows that it is unlikely any of them would be able to read its content well enough to satisfy sounds for writing consent.
  • The document wielded considerable mana was clear, the pomp and ceremony surrounding its presentation. the exchange of gifts for signatures.
  • Hobson’s statement that if the chiefs signed, the Queen would protect them, this impressed the Maori and saw the treaty wiht much power.
  • How they were treated was up for debate.
  • despite them signing it, In the Chiefs eyes it, the treaty took second place to its importance as a taonga through which their mana and tapu would fuse with that of the other chiefs.
  • Taonga is not just physical but mental – they speak and represent our origins, believes and foundation. it possess a mauri of life force and wairua, spirit all of their own.
  • Whakapapa is a living face off their ancestors.
  • Whakapapa is not a deal more than merely human genealogical table of descents.
  • Some might say that the treaty may be understood as a chiefly gift exchange, where as the queen had ‘gifted’ to the chiefs on NZ taonga including ng tikaga,katoa rite tahi.
  • The exchange could be woman or children, rights to land and resources, ancient weapons and greenstone.
  • When Grey had left, many chiefs had come to say goodbye. The Taonga that grey was given on this occasion was important and valuable.
  • This greenstone was then passed down from generation to generation with the respects of the tribe. Therefore, these precious and taonga are present to Grey to represent the inheritor of the promise made in the treaty.
  • Only valuable taonga were considered worthy of releasing to other kin groups.
  • After they had given the Taonga to Gary there was an ongoing expectation of a return – as established in the treaty.
  • The Wai 262 remains unresolved.
  • How can they participate simultaneously in what appears as two districts
  • The argument that people such as the maori are simply borrowing from the conceptual toolbox of anthropology for the sake of self determination obscures another possibility that they are using the language of social theory in the attempt to articulate concepts for their own.
  • Maori are not only insisting upon but demonstrating the persistent salience and enduring vitality of their own concepts… Maori wants of being.
  • You can be two cultures but being two does not make you any less of being full Maori.

March 8th – Mana Taonga Readings (summary)


Tears of Rangi – experiments across worlds (summary)

  • In 1769 on the east coast of the north island of New Zealand, there was an exchange of a white cloth for a crayfish between Tupaia and Joseph banks.
  • Tupaia and banks were sent to the pacific by the Royal Society of London and the British Admiralty to observe.
  • During their endeavour tupaia died.
  • When tupia (the high priest) had died, Banks made sure to keep the sketch of him that he had made that is now sitting at the British Museum. and in this image we see banks holding a white cloth that he had received as an exchange in his hand.
  • Tupaia was a lading figure in the ‘arioi cult’ dedicated to ‘Oro, the God of fertility and war, farmed for its lover, artist, dancer, actors, scholars, worriors and star navigators.
  • Georg Forster would describe Tupaia as ‘an extraordinary genius’
  • Throughout Tupaia time he had made many sketched that are now revolutionary. He would sit with the ships artist and draw the same subject but creating new kinds of artwork using European technical and with quintessential Polynesian version.
  • In one of his sketches it dhows two men, one Maori and one European, standing face to face offering each other gifts. 
  • In New Zealand life was ordered by relational networks and driven by exchange.
  • Taonga carried part of the vital force of Hau.
  • Hau is at the heart of life itself. If the person does not hold their obligations to these transactions, there life will be threatened.
  • Good or bad tango and gifts or insults pass back and fourth embodying the power of the Hau.
  • Ranapiri –  he contrasted the Maori concept of Hau of the gift with the assumption in contemporary capitalism that all transactions are driven by self interest.
  • In Maori wants of thinking, Hau drives the whole world, not just human relationship. I goes far beyond the change of gifts among people.
  • hau emerged at the very beginning of the cosmos.
  • Chants recorded by Te Kohuora of Rangoroa : the world begins with a burst of engird that generates through darkness. – out of the Po comes the Kore.
  • through these exchanges, new forms of life emerge.
  • there is just one Maori ancestor, Ranginui standing here and Papatuanuku lying there. Male sky and female earth are a single being locked together.
  • With their unity the ancestors of crops, sea, wind, fern etc were crushed into darkness.
  • Cramped and frustrated the older brother separated the Ranginui and Papatuanuku. They are not happy about being separated.
  • Light is separated from (but still linked with) darkness and the left from the right, oriented by the bodies of the founding ancestors.
  • Maori kin groups are contextual and dynamic, with some relations forged by result and fighting; other by adoption, friendship and marriage, accompanied by gift exchange; while others of lesser value are allowed to wither away.
  • people can activate different links under different circumstances.
  • In These recursive exchanges, identity takes shape and shifts.
  • In the Marae, ancestors apparel in genealogies and stories, in photographs and in the carvings that line the inside of walls.
  • the University of Auckland area explains the carving meeting house embodies the ancestor who first ascended and layered heavens on a whirlwind to fetch the three baskets knowledge for his descendants.
  • The carvings in the Marae and everything in general have a meaning to them.
  • chants do not reflect a world view but rather express a world objectively from inside of it.
  • a way of being that patterns the world, basked on whapapa – vast intricate networks of relation in which all forms of life are linked, generated by exchange between completely pairs, animated by Hau.
  • Thus when Maori great each other by petting their noses, their hau intermingles.
  • This is the same if we were to press our noses up against carvings.
  • The refusal to do this is known as Hau Whitia. Hauhauaitu is manifested as illness or ill fortune to breakdown in the change of the exchange. – the life force has been harmed.
  • Utu, is the principle of reciprocity, drives the ranges between individuals and groups and all other life forms, past and present working towards equilibrium.
  • As Tamatu Ranapiri explained to Elsdon Best, in catching birds for examples, one must offer the first bird captured to the hau of the forest, to ensure its ongoing ora – its well being and protect ones own health and good fortune.
  • In Te ao Maori, people are constitutes by their relationship and the identity is recursively generated.
  • each group of singles create its identity by engaging with other people and recognising that they are different. 
  • Before the Europeans, there were not maori people it was just different groups of kins that lived around the island.
  • Maori began to then refer to their own ancestral ways as Te Ao Maori in contrast with Te Ao Pekeha.
  • “i have always found them of a brave, norble, open and benevolent disposition but they are a people that will never put up with a insult if they have an opportunity to resent it” – C Cook
  • Later on the Treaty of Waitangi was exchanged.
  • throughout this period. Maori were dominant.
  • as relationships were formed with visitors and incoming settlers the new arrivals were forced to deal with Maori realities.
  • The Clashes, debates and improvisations that took place provided rich, vivid ways of exploring what happens when people with different taken-for-granted ideas about what is real and what matters in life come through and try negotiate shared ways of living.
  • for some practitioners, the realities of different groups of people can be obsessed, described and classified different ways.

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